Meat consumption research – Part 2 The introduction of agriculture

See Introduction/aim of research for the background to this work

It is not known exactly how agriculture spread after emerging in the middle east around 10-15 thousand years ago and political ideas have skewed some of the theories raised from archaeological findings in the last couple of centuries. The political influence often promoted theories of descent from “civilised” farming ancestors rather than from what were considered “savage” hunter-gatherers. Consequently, the idea of hunter-gatherer incumbents being replaced by a wave of “civilised” farming peoples coming from the middle east was preferred by many in the field and seemed to fit the evidence. However, examination of the current state of research leads Richards (2003) to conclude “the majority of European genetic lineages have their roots in the European Palaeolithic.” This suggests that agriculture was a technique that was taken up by existing peoples rather than being the preserve of a conquering or replacing immigrant farming population.

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Meat consumption research – Part 1 Meat and diets in our evolutionary history

San Hunters

San Hunters - Photo by Charles Roffey licensed under Creative Commons license

See Introduction/aim of research for the background to this work

When considering human diets, food requirements and choices it is essential to look at the evolutionary history of our species. This requires looking back at least the couple of hundred thousand years of homo sapiens time on earth and even the previous hundreds of millions of years since our ancestral divergence from other primates. With the relatively recent changes to diet that agriculture and industrialisation have brought, it is especially valuable to consider what has been eaten for most of our evolutionary history.

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Meat consumption research – Introduction/Aim

I spent the last 4-5 months working on my final thesis for the University of Gastronomic Sciences.  I chose to look at meat consumption, the growth of which is exacerbating agricultural sustainability issues.  Following my time at the university, I was especially interested to look at some of the historic and cultural issues that make meat such a valued part of the diet.  I was also interested to look further into the health implications of diets.  The work was helped and inspired by my reading of Richard Manning’s book Against the Grain, Massimo Montanari’s teaching at the university and his book The Culture of Food and Michael Pollan’s books The Omnivore’s Dilemma and In Defence of Food.

The title of my work is…

Towards a more sustainable food system: Understanding the history, culture and impact of meat in human diets

and a brief synopsis…

High and rising global meat consumption threatens the sustainability of our food system with ever more resources devoted to livestock farming while much of the world remains hungry. I look at the history and culture of meat in human diets, the way we produce meat, it’s role in human health, ethical issues and solutions to restore sustainability.

In the end I think I was a little over-ambitious with the wide scope of the research.  It was more work than was required for the university but I was interested in doing it and felt that I was looking at the issues from a unique set of perspectives.  Unfortunately, I had to rush at the end to get it finished for the deadline and some parts could have done with some more work.  I will publish it here over the coming weeks, tidying up some bits that I was not satisfied with.

The work was a real challenge and a valuable exercise.  In places it was very difficult to keep objective and construct defendable arguments.  Please comment if you find anything you think is poorly argued or wrong.

See below for the aim of the research

Part 1: Meat and diets in our evolutionary history is here

Part 2: The introduction of agriculture is here

Part 3: Between agriculture and industrialisation is here

Part 4: Industrialisation and modernisation is here

Part 5: Impact on the environment is here

Part 6: Impact on human health is here

Part 7: Other impacts is here

Part 8: Ethical considerations is here

Part 9: Conclusions/Solutions is here

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Food Ethics Magazine – The Food Crisis


The current issue of the magazine of the Food Ethics Council covers the issues behind and caused by the recent food commodity price rises (that I also wrote about here). Here are some contributions that stood out for me…

Alex Evans of the Center on International Cooperation, New York University presents some detailed analysis of the factors causing the situation. He writes that the International Food Policy Research Institute estimates that roughly half the recent price increases are due to changing consumption patterns with growing affluence in places like China, India and Russia. Extra income allows the purchase of more meat and dairy products and animal rearing consumes large quantities of agricultural outputs as feed. They give the role of biofuels in removing food-crops from the food markets a lesser importance, responsible for around 30% of the price increases. The high prices should ease this year but are likely to remain higher than before. He goes on to warn of the other factors that threaten food security in the near future such as water scarcity, climate changes and feeding the poorest people of the world. Feeding the poor has been made much more difficult for the World Food Programme, much of its food came from surplus stocks and its budget can now purchase much less food and transport than previously. On top of this there are now many more hungry people in the world.

Adam Drewnowski of the UW Center for Obesity Research, University of Washington, Seattle writes that where it could be thought that higher food prices would reduce obesity rates, in fact the opposite could be true. This is because as poorer people try to save money on food, they will buy cheaper energy-dense foods and will be even less likely to buy healthier, fresh foods.

Peter Melchett of the Soil Association explains how prices of organic agricultural products have not had the same level of price rises, insulating organic producers from some of the shock. However, he thinks that with the renewed greater profitability of non-organic farming, there will be less conversion of farmers to organic production – organic margins were especially attractive to farmers facing low market prices for conventional crops.

David Barling of the Centre for Food Policy, City University, London had been working on a study of UK food security. After a recent high in the 1980s when 75% of all food was produced in the UK, this fell to 58.1% in 2006. He believes that the government should align their food policy with their other priorities for sustainable development, making sure they are economically, environmentally and socially sustainable.

Bill Vorley of the International Institute for Environmental Development worries that the environment will be one of the big losers from the current crisis. Rather than dealing with some of the underlying causes, the outcome will be increased planting of crops, using land that had been set aside, and opening up new agricultural land for example clearing forest.

Sophia Murphy of the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy provides an eloquent criticism of globalised “free trade” systems which have mostly only benefited the large agricultural trading companies. The World Trade Organisation purports to give markets stability, Murphy writes that the current conditions show that it does nothing of the sort. To conclude, she details some solutions governments could adopt that have been developed in a report by the International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development.

Daryll E. Ray and Harwood Schaffer of the Agricultural Policy Analysis Center, University of Tennessee analyse the causes of the price rises, most of which have been identifiable for some time. They conclude therefore that governments could have planned for this situation.

Edward Clay of the ODI looks at some problems in the way the World Food Programme operates, for example that much of its donations have been food-based out of unsold surpluses. This has helped promote an import-based solution which may further hinder long-term local solutions. With less surplus and higher prices, funding of the programme will probably need to change and he presents some ideas on how the whole concept of food aid might be improved.

Patrick Mulvany of Practical Action praises the work of the International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development. Their report was sponsored by FAO, GEF, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, the World Bank and WHO. 400 scientists were involved with the research. The 2,000 page report was overseen by a committee that included representatives from 30 governments and 30 other organisations. The report concludes that to feed the world’s population into the future, agriculture needs to be radically changed to a more sustainable practice.

Tido von Schoen-Angerer of Médecins sans Frontières warns that the people most at risk with the increased food prices are poor children. The most important time for good nutrition is between the age of 6 months and 2 years. Even before the price rises, malnutrition was contributing to the death of 5 million children under the age of 5.

And finally, Nick Snelgar of Futurefarms offers their vision of community-owned agriculture as a possible model for revitalising food and agriculture in the UK.

Reform Club Menu, 9th May 1846

Reform Club Menu, 9th May 1846

Scan of menu from Alexis Soyer’s book “The Gastronomic Regenerator” found at

As part of a food history course we have had with Professor Alberto Capatti, food historian and dean of the University of Gastronomic Sciences we were given an assignment to analyse a menu.  In Colin Spencer’s “British Food, An Extraordinary Thousand Years of History” I found a menu from the Reform Club in 1846, a time when Alexis Soyer, the most famous chef of the time was employed there.  Following are some information about the menu and an analysis of the food on offer…

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World Food Crisis Conference with Solomon Katz

Last week Solomon Katz came to the university to talk to us about the current problems with food prices and supplies. He is a professor of anthropology and director of the Wilton M. Krogman Center for Research in Child Growth and Development at the University of Pennsylvania. Here is a summary of the information I picked up and some of my thoughts…

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Fishing in Puglia

Fish unloaded from boat, Mola di Bari

Last week I had my last thematic field trip with the university, studying the fishing industry in Puglia. Our trip was slightly disrupted by the unsettled weather that was affecting most of Italy and unfortunately we didn’t get to go out on boats and see fishing actually happening (unless you count seeing a small net-full of fish pulled out of the water in a fish farm). Anyway, there was plenty of other fish-related stuff…

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